4SA04, GROUP 2

Members of the Group:

  1. Annisa Sutan Zainal (10612981)
  2. Aryani (18612122)
  3. Melania Santosa (1461253)
  4. Romy Chandra (16612680)
  5. Tiya Rahmawati (17612418)


Advantages Of Using SDL Machine Translation

SDL is the leader in language translation and global content management.  With more than 20 years of experience, SDL helps companies build relevant digital experiences that deliver transformative business results on a global scale.


Bespoke, high-quality output

Complete your projects faster than ever, while preserving translation quality, with the ability to train your own machine translation engines. SDL Language Cloud Custom MT Engines provide translators with a source of bespoke, high-quality MT output that requires minimal post-editing before publishing.

Boost translation productivity

Achieve new levels of productivity by tailoring your own engines to your specific requirements; specific clients, projects or industry verticals. A trained engine can translate industry terminology 24% more consistently than an untrained engine, helping you work more efficiently.

The benefits of Custom MT Engines

  • Trainable– Enhance translation quality with the ability to train your own engines
  • Secure – Your data is protected and translated over a secure, encrypted connection
  • Cloud-based– No hardware costs, easy to get started, no maintenance
  • 100 baseline language pairs– Try various language pairs quickly and easily with no additional costs
  • Seamless – Designed to integrate with SDL’s world leading language technologies
  • Flexible pricing – A flexible package that allows you to use machine translation as often as you wish

SDL Translate is your ‘all in one’ translation solution. It’s a communication platform, phrase dictionary, language teacher, and travel companion. With over 90 language pairings including Spanish, German, French, Italian, Chinese and Arabic (, SDL Translate covers every corner of the globe.

Key Features:

– Text to speech (TTS) * : Write a sentence and tap the translation to hear it.

– Speech to text (STT) * : Tap the microphone button and speak to get your sentence translated.

– Phrases: Introductory Phrases in Spanish, German, and French. Available without a network connection.

– Idiomatic Expressions: Ever wanted to know how to say “Piece of Cake” in another language? Now you can translate 65 Idiomatic expressions from English to Spanish, French, or German.

* This feature depends on the available languages on your device.

The following languages are available for Translation:

Western Europe:

Danish ⇨ English
Dutch ⇨ English
English ⇨ Albanian
English ⇨ Arabic
English ⇨ Bengali
English ⇨ Bulgarian
English ⇨ Chinese (Simplified)
English ⇨ Chinese (Traditional)
English ⇨ Czech
English ⇨ Danish
English ⇨ Dutch
English ⇨ Estonian
English ⇨ Finnish
English ⇨ French
English ⇨ German
English ⇨ Greek
English ⇨ Pashto
English ⇨ Hausa
English ⇨ Hebrew
English ⇨ Hindi
English ⇨ Hungarian
English ⇨ Indonesian
English ⇨ Italian
English ⇨ Japanese
English ⇨ Korean
English ⇨ Latvian
English ⇨ Lithuanian
English ⇨ Malay
English ⇨ Norwegian
English ⇨ Polish
English ⇨ Portuguese
English ⇨ Persian
English ⇨ Romanian
English ⇨ Russian
English ⇨ Spanish
English ⇨ Somali
English ⇨ Serbian
English ⇨ Slovak
English ⇨ Slovenian
English ⇨ Swedish
English ⇨ Thai
English ⇨ Turkish
English ⇨ Ukrainian
English ⇨ Urdu
English ⇨ Vietnamese
Finnish ⇨ English
French ⇨ English
French ⇨ Arabic
French ⇨ Spanish
French ⇨ German
Spanish ⇨ Italian
German ⇨ English
German ⇨ French
German ⇨ Spanish
Greek ⇨ English
Italian ⇨ English
Italian ⇨ Spanish
Norwegian ⇨ English
Portuguese ⇨ English
Spanish ⇨ English
Spanish ⇨ Arabic
Spanish ⇨ French
Spanish ⇨ German
Swedish ⇨ English


Eastern Europe:


Albanian ⇨ English
Bulgarian ⇨ English
Czech ⇨ English
Estonian ⇨ English
Hungarian ⇨ English
Latvian ⇨ English
Lithuanian ⇨ English
Polish ⇨ English
Romanian ⇨ English
Russian ⇨ English
Slovak ⇨ English
Serbian ⇨ English
Slovenian ⇨ English
Ukrainian ⇨ English

Middle East & Africa:

Arabic ⇨ English
Arabic ⇨ Spanish
Arabic ⇨ French
Hausa ⇨ English
Hebrew ⇨ English

Pashto ⇨ English
Persian ⇨ English
Somali ⇨ English
Turkish ⇨ English

Bengali ⇨ English
Hindi ⇨ English
Korean ⇨ English
Urdu ⇨ English
Chinese (Simplified) ⇨ English
Chinese (Traditional) ⇨ English
Indonesian ⇨ English
Malay ⇨ English
Vietnamese ⇨ English
Japanese ⇨ English
Thai ⇨ English

Disadvantages Of Using SDL Machine Translation

There are some disadvantages when we use SDL as an alternative machine translation to help us during translating the text, there are:

  • When we translate a text use SDL Machine Translation, the result of translation isn’t natural. It depends on the original text. When the translator tries to quote a sentence or idiom or paraphrase from a novel; nevertheless, SDL Machine Translation translates the passage unnaturally.
  • The accuracy isn’t fully offered by SDL Machine Translation on a consistent basis. Usually, we can get the gist of the texts or anything else like that, but SDL Machine Translation only does word to word translation without comprehending the information which might have to be corrected manually later on. SDL Machine Translation rarely reaches accuracy levels above 70%, while a human translation almost always produces accuracy above 95%.
  • SDL Machine Translation is based on formal and systematic rules, the inferior translation quality of the texts with ambiguous words and sentences. So, sometimes SDL Machine Translation cannot solve the ambiguity by concentrating on a context and using experience or mental outlook as a human translator.
  • SDL cannot translate phrase, idiom, countable and uncountable noun correctly. It can be proved in the next page of this assignment.


The translation result of SDL

Due to the size of SDL application is very big, it is about more than 300mb, we translate the text with the website of SDL

  1. Translating Noun Phrase with SDL

sdl 1

From the screenshot above, it shows that in translating Indonesian noun phrase wanita muda yang sangat cantik, the result in English is the young woman was very beautiful. If we look at the result of the translation, the structure is grammatically correct, but the tense it should be simple present tense not simple past tense. In source language the form is a noun phrase, meanwhile in the target language the form changes, become a sentence.

Comparing to Ginger

ginger 2

If we compare SDL to Ginger, Ginger produces a better result than SDL. Indonesian noun phrase wanita muda yang sangat cantik is translated into a pretty young lady, in source language the form is a noun phrase, meanwhile in the source text the form is translated also into a noun phrase.

2. Translating Idiom with SDL

sdl 3

sdl 4

From the screenshot above, it proves that SDL cannot translate idiom correctly. In the first picture, we have example in source language English idiom break a leg which is translated into Indonesia becomes mematahkan kaki, SDL translates the idiom literally. English idiom break a leg has the same meaning with Good luck!. Second picture also proves that SDL cannot translate idiom correctly, idiom such give it a shot is translated into memberikan suara tembakan in Indonesian target language, the meaning of idiom give a shot is make an attempt or effort to do something, or in Indonesian it can be translated into mencobanya.

3. Translating Countable and Uncountable Noun with SDL

sdl 2

From the screenshot above, it shows that in translating countable and uncountable noun using SDL from Indonesian source language kami membeli banyak sekali keju dan bunga into English target language we buy a lot of cheese and interest. In the target language the structure is grammatically correct, and it uses simple present tense. The quantifier a lot of can be used for both countable and uncountable noun, so the use of a lot of is correct. The word cheese is uncountable noun, we cannot add suffix –s, SDL translates it correctly. Unfortunately the source language bunga is translated into interest in target language, it should be translated into flowers, it proves that SDL is not able to recognize context of the text.


Comparing to Ginger

ginger 3

Ginger translates the Indonesian source language kami membeli banyak sekali keju dan bunga into English target language we bought lots of cheese and flowers. The structure is grammatically correct, it uses simple past tense, which is correct. Unlike the result produced by SDL, ginger translates banyak sekali into lots of, it is correct, because quantifier lots of is used for both countable and uncountable noun. Keju dan bunga is translated into cheese and flowers, ginger translates it correctly, we cannot add suffix –s in plural form of the word cheese, because it is uncountable noun. Unlike SDL, translating bunga into interest, ginger translates it into flowers, which is correct. We add suffix –s in plural form of countable noun, flower is countable noun, so we add suffix –s becomes flowers. Ginger is able to recognize the context of the text.

We can take a conclusion, SDL doesn’t produce a good translation, ginger translates better than SDL.



A. Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate words.

  1. A person who breaks into a house to steal is….
  2. A person who burns property in a criminal way is…
  3. Killing someone with intention is…
  4. Killing someone accidentally…
  5. A thief who steals from pockets is…
  6. A person who steals from stories…
  7. To bring something illegally into a country is…
  8. To set fire on someone’s property, for example, a house, is….
  9. To take someone hostage on order to exchange him or her for money is…
  10. What does the judge do after a guilty verdict?
  11. A very serious crime, such as robbery or murder is called…
  12. A crime that is that is less serious than a felony is…
  13. What is the study that learns how climate affects living things?


B. What are the nouns connected with the following verb?

  1. Discover
  2. Invent
  3. Combine
  4. Conclude
  5. Experiment
  6. Analyze
  7. React

Reading Comprehension #1

Reading 1

1) Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

A. Why Doctors Disagree about Flossing
B. How to Keep Your Teeth Healthy
C. Flossing Your Way to a Healthy Heart
D. Flossing by Coincidence

2) Flossing effectively helps to keep your mouth healthy by preventing

A. germs from producing acid
B. food from entering your body
C. germs from entering into your blood
D. acid from contacting your teeth and gums

3) In paragraph 2, the author introduces ideas about how flossing works to keep your heart healthy. Exactly how many of these ideas does the author put forth in this paragraph?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

4) Based on information in paragraph 2, it can be understood that germs in the mouth may harm your heart by:
I. getting into the blood that flows to the heart
II. forcing the body to fight against too many of them
III. causing food to get stuck in the arteries

A. l only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I, II, and III

5) In paragraph 2, the author explains how having too many germs in your mouth can “end up weakening the heart.” Using the passage as a guide, it can be understood that with respect to the actual way in which this occurs, doctors are

A. reluctant to hypothesize
B. confident in their estimations
C. extremely knowledgeable
D. uncertain but speculative

6) In paragraph 3 the author writes, “Not every doctor agrees about these ideas.” The author’s purpose in writing this sentence is to

A. provide an example
B. introduce a new topic
C. change a previous statement
D. clarify an earlier assertion

7) Using information in paragraph 3 as a guide, which of the following is the best example of a coincidence?

A. Jim wakes up with a sore throat. He eats a piece of bacon for breakfast. By noon, he feels much better. Jim decides that the bacon has cured his sore throat.
B. Laura remembers to brush her teeth every day, but she only remembers to floss once a week. She writes a note to herself, reminding herself to floss and sticks it to her bathroom mirror.
C. Mario is not very good at baseball. He practices playing every day. After a several months of practice, he is a much better baseball player.
D. Jai has a bad heart. Her doctor tells her to eat more vegetables and less junk food. After nearly a year of doing this, the doctor tells Jai that her heart is doing much better.

8) Based on its use in the final paragraph, it can be inferred that theory belongs to which of the following word groups?

A. query, question, interrogation
B. assertion, declaration, affirmation
C. hypothesis, supposition, belief
D. idea, thought, notion

9) Which of the following best states the main idea of the final paragraph?

A. Because doctors do not agree that flossing will help your heart, it is useless to floss.
B. It is a fact that flossing can help your heart as well as your teeth.
C. Even if flossing is only good for your teeth, you should still do it every day.
D. There is no good reason to believe that flossing will help your heart, but it is still a good idea to do it every day.



Name: Annisa Sutan Zainal

Class: 4SA04

NPM: 10612981


  1. Strategi Struktural dalam Penerjemahan

Ada tiga strategi dasar yang berkenaan dengan masalah struktur, yaitu:

  • Penambahan

Penambahan di sini adalah penambahan kata-kata di dalam bahasa sasaran. Penambahan jenis ini bukanlah masalah pilihan tetapi keharusan.

  • Pengurangan

Pengurangan artinya adanya pengurangan elemen structural di dalam bahasa sasaran. Seperti halnya penambahan, pengurangan ini merupakan keharusan.

  • Transposisi

Transposisi adalah suatu keharusan apabila tanpa strategi ini makna bahasa sumber tidak tersampaikan. Transposisi menjadi pilihan apabila dilakukan hanya karena alasan gaya bahasa saja. Dengan strategi ini penerjemah mengubah struktur asli bahasa sumber di dalam bahasa sasaran untuk mencapai efek yang padan. Pengubahan ini bisa pengubahan bentuk jamak ke bentuk tunggal, posisi kata sifat, sampai pengubahan struktur kalimat secara keseluruhan. Pemisahan satu kalimat bahasa sumber menjadi dua kalimat bahasa sasaran atau lebih, atau penggabungan dua kalimat bahasa sumber atau lebih menjadi satu kalimat bahasa sasaran juga termasuk di dalam strategi ini.

Transposisi juga bisa dilakukan karena pertimbangan gaya bahasa atau stilistika.


  1. Structural Strategies of Translation

There are three main strategies that are related to the structural problems of translation, they are:

  • Addition

Addition refers to the way of adding other words in target language. This kind of strategy is required, not a choice.

  • Reduction

Reduction is more likely to reduce the number of structural elements of target language. As in the addition, reduction is required.

  • Transposition

Transposition requires the translators to change the original structure of source language into target language to get the equivalence. This strategy changes plural forms into singular forms, adjective positions, and also the whole structure of sentences. Making one sentence in source language into two or more sentences in target language, or making two or more sentences in source language into one sentence in target language is also a part of this strategy. Transposition can be the right choice if it is only about stylistic. The meaning cannot be delivered without this strategy, therefore transposition is required.

Transposition can be used in the matter of stylistic consideration or stylistics.



William Shakespeare, often called the English national poet, is widely considered the greatest dramatist of all time.


William Shakespeare was baptized on April 26, 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. From roughly 1594 onward he was an important member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men company of theatrical players. Written records give little indication of the way in which Shakespeare’s professional life molded his artistry. All that can be deduced is that over the course of 20 years, Shakespeare wrote plays that capture the complete range of human emotion and conflict.

Mysterious Origins

Known throughout the world, the works of William Shakespeare have been performed in countless hamlets, villages, cities and metropolises for more than 400 years. And yet, the personal history of William Shakespeare is somewhat a mystery. There are two primary sources that provide historians with a basic outline of his life. One source is his work—the plays, poems and sonnets—and the other is official documentation such as church and court records. However, these only provide brief sketches of specific events in his life and provide little on the person who experienced those events.

Early Life

Though no birth records exist, church records indicate that a William Shakespeare was baptized at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on April 26, 1564. From this, it is believed he was born on or near April 23, 1564, and this is the date scholars acknowledge as William Shakespeare’s birthday.

Located 103 miles west of London, during Shakespeare’s time Stratford-upon-Avon was a market town bisected with a country road and the River Avon. William was the third child of John Shakespeare, a leather merchant, and Mary Arden, a local landed heiress. William had two older sisters, Joan and Judith, and three younger brothers, Gilbert, Richard and Edmund. Before William’s birth, his father became a successful merchant and held official positions as alderman and bailiff, an office resembling a mayor. However, records indicate John’s fortunes declined sometime in the late 1570s.

Scant records exist of William’s childhood, and virtually none regarding his education. Scholars have surmised that he most likely attended the King’s New School, in Stratford, which taught reading, writing and the classics. Being a public official’s child, William would have undoubtedly qualified for free tuition. But this uncertainty regarding his education has led some to raise questions about the authorship of his work and even about whether or not William Shakespeare ever existed.

Married Life

William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582, in Worcester, in Canterbury Province. Hathaway was from Shottery, a small village a mile west of Stratford. William was 18 and Anne was 26, and, as it turns out, pregnant. Their first child, a daughter they named Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. Two years later, on February 2, 1585, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. Hamnet later died of unknown causes at age 11.

After the birth of the twins, there are seven years of William Shakespeare’s life where no records exist. Scholars call this period the “lost years,” and there is wide speculation on what he was doing during this period. One theory is that he might have gone into hiding for poaching game from the local landlord, Sir Thomas Lucy. Another possibility is that he might have been working as an assistant schoolmaster in Lancashire. It is generally believed he arrived in London in the mid- to late 1580s and may have found work as a horse attendant at some of London’s finer theaters, a scenario updated centuries later by the countless aspiring actors and playwrights in Hollywood and Broadway.

Theatrical Beginnings

By 1592, there is evidence William Shakespeare earned a living as an actor and a playwright in London and possibly had several plays produced. The September 20, 1592 edition of the Stationers’ Register (a guild publication) includes an article by London playwright Robert Greene that takes a few jabs at William Shakespeare: “…There is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger’s heart wrapped in a Player’s hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country,” Greene wrote of Shakespeare.

Scholars differ on the interpretation of this criticism, but most agree that it was Greene’s way of saying Shakespeare was reaching above his rank, trying to match better known and educated playwrights like Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe or Greene himself.

By the early 1590s, documents show William Shakespeare was a managing partner in the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, an acting company in London. After the crowning of King James I, in 1603, the company changed its name to the King’s Men. From all accounts, the King’s Men company was very popular, and records show that Shakespeare had works published and sold as popular literature. The theater culture in 16th century England was not highly admired by people of high rank. However, many of the nobility were good patrons of the performing arts and friends of the actors. Early in his career, Shakespeare was able to attract the attention of Henry Wriothesley, the Earl of Southampton, to whom he dedicated his first- and second-published poems: “Venus and Adonis” (1593) and “The Rape of Lucrece” (1594).

Establishing Himself

By 1597, 15 of the 37 plays written by William Shakespeare were published. Civil records show that at this time he purchased the second largest house in Stratford, called New House, for his family. It was a four-day ride by horse from Stratford to London, so it is believed that Shakespeare spent most of his time in the city writing and acting and came home once a year during the 40-day Lenten period, when the theaters were closed.

By 1599, William Shakespeare and his business partners built their own theater on the south bank of the Thames River, which they called the Globe. In 1605, Shakespeare purchased leases of real estate near Stratford for 440 pounds, which doubled in value and earned him 60 pounds a year. This made him an entrepreneur as well as an artist, and scholars believe these investments gave him the time to write his plays uninterrupted.

Writing Style

William Shakespeare’s early plays were written in the conventional style of the day, with elaborate metaphors and rhetorical phrases that didn’t always align naturally with the story’s plot or characters. However, Shakespeare was very innovative, adapting the traditional style to his own purposes and creating a freer flow of words. With only small degrees of variation, Shakespeare primarily used a metrical pattern consisting of lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter, or blank verse, to compose his plays. At the same time, there are passages in all the plays that deviate from this and use forms of poetry or simple prose.

Early Works: Histories and Comedies

With the exception of Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare’s first plays were mostly histories written in the early 1590s. Richard II, Henry VI (parts 1, 2 and 3) and Henry V dramatize the destructive results of weak or corrupt rulers, and have been interpreted by drama historians as Shakespeare’s way of justifying the origins of the Tudor Dynasty.

Shakespeare also wrote several comedies during his early period: the witty romance A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the romantic Merchant of Venice, the wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing, the charming As You Like It and Twelfth Night. Other plays, possibly written before 1600, include Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

Later Works: Tragedies and Tragicomedies

It was in William Shakespeare’s later period, after 1600, that he wrote the tragedies Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth. In these, Shakespeare’s characters present vivid impressions of human temperament that are timeless and universal. Possibly the best known of these plays is Hamlet, which explores betrayal, retribution, incest and moral failure. These moral failures often drive the twists and turns of Shakespeare’s plots, destroying the hero and those he loves.

In William Shakespeare’s final period, he wrote several tragicomedies. Among these are Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest. Though graver in tone than the comedies, they are not the dark tragedies of King Lear or Macbeth because they end with reconciliation and forgiveness.


Tradition has it that William Shakespeare died on his birthday, April 23, 1616, though many scholars believe this is a myth. Church records show he was interred at Trinity Church on April 25, 1616.

In his will, he left the bulk of his possessions to his eldest daughter, Susanna. Though entitled to a third of his estate, little seems to have gone to his wife, Anne, whom he bequeathed his “second-best bed.” This has drawn speculation that she had fallen out of favor, or that the couple was not close. However, there is very little evidence the two had a difficult marriage. Other scholars note that the term “second-best bed” often refers to the bed belonging to the household’s master and mistres—the marital bed—and the “first-best bed” was reserved for guests.

Controversy and Literary Legacy

About 150 years after his death, questions arose about the authorship of William Shakespeare’s plays. Scholars and literary critics began to float names like Christopher Marlowe, Edward de Vere and Francis Bacon—men of more known backgrounds, literary accreditation, or inspiration—as the true authors of the plays. Much of this stemmed from the sketchy details of Shakespeare’s life and the dearth of contemporary primary sources. Official records from the Holy Trinity Church and the Stratford government record the existence of a William Shakespeare, but none of these attest to him being an actor or playwright.

Skeptics also questioned how anyone of such modest education could write with the intellectual perceptiveness and poetic power that is displayed in Shakespeare’s works. Over the centuries, several groups have emerged that question the authorship of Shakespeare’s plays.

The most serious and intense skepticism began in the 19th century when adoration for Shakespeare was at its highest. The detractors believed that the only hard evidence surrounding William Shakespeare from Stratford-upon-Avon described a man from modest beginnings who married young and became successful in real estate. Members of the Shakespeare Oxford Society (founded in 1957) put forth arguments that English aristocrat Edward de Vere, the 17th Earl of Oxford, was the true author of the poems and plays of “William Shakespeare.” The Oxfordians cite de Vere’s extensive knowledge of aristocratic society, his education, and the structural similarities between his poetry and that found in the works attributed to Shakespeare. They contend that William Shakespeare had neither the education nor the literary training to write such eloquent prose and create such rich characters.

However, the vast majority of Shakespearean scholars contend that William Shakespeare wrote all his own plays. They point out that other playwrights of the time also had sketchy histories and came from modest backgrounds. They contend that Stratford’s New Grammar School curriculum of Latin and the classics could have provided a good foundation for literary writers. Supporters of Shakespeare’s authorship argue that the lack of evidence about Shakespeare’s life doesn’t mean his life didn’t exist. They point to evidence that displays his name on the title pages of published poems and plays. Examples exist of authors and critics of the time acknowledging William Shakespeare as author of plays such as The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Comedy of Errors and King John. Royal records from 1601 show that William Shakespeare was recognized as a member of the King’s Men theater company (formally known as the Chamberlain’s Men) and a Groom of the Chamber by the court of King James I, where the company performed seven of Shakespeare’s plays. There is also strong circumstantial evidence of personal relationships by contemporaries who interacted with Shakespeare as an actor and a playwright.

What seems to be true is that William Shakespeare was a respected man of the dramatic arts who wrote plays and acted in some in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. But his reputation as a dramatic genius wasn’t recognized until the 19th century. Beginning with the Romantic period of the early 1800s and continuing through the Victorian period, acclaim and reverence for William Shakespeare and his work reached its height. In the 20th century, new movements in scholarship and performance have rediscovered and adopted his works.

Today, his plays are highly popular and constantly studied and reinterpreted in performances with diverse cultural and political contexts. The genius of Shakespeare’s characters and plots are that they present real human beings in a wide range of emotions and conflicts that transcend their origins in Elizabethan England.

Article Title

William Shakespeare Biography

Author Editors

Website Name

The website


Access Date

January 25, 2016


A&E Television Networks

Plot Overview: Wuthering Heights

In the late winter months of 1801, a man named Lockwood rents a manor house called Thrushcross Grange in the isolated moor country of England. Here, he meets his dour landlord, Heathcliff, a wealthy man who lives in the ancient manor of Wuthering Heights, four miles away from the Grange. In this wild, stormy countryside, Lockwood asks his housekeeper, Nelly Dean, to tell him the story of Heathcliff and the strange denizens of Wuthering Heights. Nelly consents, and Lockwood writes down his recollections of her tale in his diary; these written recollections form the main part of Wuthering Heights.

Nelly remembers her childhood. As a young girl, she works as a servant at Wuthering Heights for the owner of the manor, Mr. Earnshaw, and his family. One day, Mr. Earnshaw goes to Liverpool and returns home with an orphan boy whom he will raise with his own children. At first, the Earnshaw children—a boy named Hindley and his younger sister Catherine—detest the dark-skinned Heathcliff. But Catherine quickly comes to love him, and the two soon grow inseparable, spending their days playing on the moors. After his wife’s death, Mr. Earnshaw grows to prefer Heathcliff to his own son, and when Hindley continues his cruelty to Heathcliff, Mr. Earnshaw sends Hindley away to college, keeping Heathcliff nearby.

Three years later, Mr. Earnshaw dies, and Hindley inherits Wuthering Heights. He returns with a wife, Frances, and immediately seeks revenge on Heathcliff. Once an orphan, later a pampered and favored son, Heathcliff now finds himself treated as a common laborer, forced to work in the fields. Heathcliff continues his close relationship with Catherine, however. One night they wander to Thrushcross Grange, hoping to tease Edgar and Isabella Linton, the cowardly, snobbish children who live there. Catherine is bitten by a dog and is forced to stay at the Grange to recuperate for five weeks, during which time Mrs. Linton works to make her a proper young lady. By the time Catherine returns, she has become infatuated with Edgar, and her relationship with Heathcliff grows more complicated.

When Frances dies after giving birth to a baby boy named Hareton, Hindley descends into the depths of alcoholism, and behaves even more cruelly and abusively toward Heathcliff. Eventually, Catherine’s desire for social advancement prompts her to become engaged to Edgar Linton, despite her overpowering love for Heathcliff. Heathcliff runs away from Wuthering Heights, staying away for three years, and returning shortly after Catherine and Edgar’s marriage.

When Heathcliff returns, he immediately sets about seeking revenge on all who have wronged him. Having come into a vast and mysterious wealth, he deviously lends money to the drunken Hindley, knowing that Hindley will increase his debts and fall into deeper despondency. When Hindley dies, Heathcliff inherits the manor. He also places himself in line to inherit Thrushcross Grange by marrying Isabella Linton, whom he treats very cruelly. Catherine becomes ill, gives birth to a daughter, and dies. Heathcliff begs her spirit to remain on Earth—she may take whatever form she will, she may haunt him, drive him mad—just as long as she does not leave him alone. Shortly thereafter, Isabella flees to London and gives birth to Heathcliff’s son, named Linton after her family. She keeps the boy with her there.

Thirteen years pass, during which Nelly Dean serves as Catherine’s daughter’s nursemaid at Thrushcross Grange. Young Catherine is beautiful and headstrong like her mother, but her temperament is modified by her father’s gentler influence. Young Catherine grows up at the Grange with no knowledge of Wuthering Heights; one day, however, wandering through the moors, she discovers the manor, meets Hareton, and plays together with him. Soon afterwards, Isabella dies, and Linton comes to live with Heathcliff. Heathcliff treats his sickly, whining son even more cruelly than he treated the boy’s mother.

Three years later, Catherine meets Heathcliff on the moors, and makes a visit to Wuthering Heights to meet Linton. She and Linton begin a secret romance conducted entirely through letters. When Nelly destroys Catherine’s collection of letters, the girl begins sneaking out at night to spend time with her frail young lover, who asks her to come back and nurse him back to health. However, it quickly becomes apparent that Linton is pursuing Catherine only because Heathcliff is forcing him to; Heathcliff hopes that if Catherine marries Linton, his legal claim upon Thrushcross Grange—and his revenge upon Edgar Linton—will be complete. One day, as Edgar Linton grows ill and nears death, Heathcliff lures Nelly and Catherine back to Wuthering Heights, and holds them prisoner until Catherine marries Linton. Soon after the marriage, Edgar dies, and his death is quickly followed by the death of the sickly Linton. Heathcliff now controls both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. He forces Catherine to live at Wuthering Heights and act as a common servant, while he rents Thrushcross Grange to Lockwood.

Nelly’s story ends as she reaches the present. Lockwood, appalled, ends his tenancy at Thrushcross Grange and returns to London. However, six months later, he pays a visit to Nelly, and learns of further developments in the story. Although Catherine originally mocked Hareton’s ignorance and illiteracy (in an act of retribution, Heathcliff ended Hareton’s education after Hindley died), Catherine grows to love Hareton as they live together at Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff becomes more and more obsessed with the memory of the elder Catherine, to the extent that he begins speaking to her ghost. Everything he sees reminds him of her. Shortly after a night spent walking on the moors, Heathcliff dies. Hareton and young Catherine inherit Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange, and they plan to be married on the next New Year’s Day. After hearing the end of the story, Lockwood goes to visit the graves of Catherine and Heathcliff.


The story of Wuthering Heights is told through flashbacks recorded in diary entries, and events are often presented out of chronological order—Lockwood’s narrative takes place after Nelly’s narrative, for instance, but is interspersed with Nelly’s story in his journal. Nevertheless, the novel contains enough clues to enable an approximate reconstruction of its chronology, which was elaborately designed by Emily Brontë. For instance, Lockwood’s diary entries are recorded in the late months of 1801 and in September 1802; in 1801, Nelly tells Lockwood that she has lived at Thrushcross Grange for eighteen years, since Catherine’s marriage to Edgar, which must then have occurred in 1783. We know that Catherine was engaged to Edgar for three years, and that Nelly was twenty-two when they were engaged, so the engagement must have taken place in 1780, and Nelly must have been born in 1758. Since Nelly is a few years older than Catherine, and since Lockwood comments that Heathcliff is about forty years old in 1801, it stands to reason that Heathcliff and Catherine were born around 1761, three years after Nelly. There are several other clues like this in the novel (such as Hareton’s birth, which occurs in June, 1778). The following chronology is based on those clues, and should closely approximate the timing of the novel’s important events. A “~” before a date indicates that it cannot be precisely determined from the evidence in the novel, but only closely estimated.

1500 –  The stone above the front door of Wuthering Heights, bearing the name of Hareton Earnshaw, is inscribed, possibly to mark the completion of the house.
1758 –  Nelly is born.
~1761 –  Heathcliff and Catherine are born.
~1767 –  Mr. Earnshaw brings Heathcliff to live at Wuthering Heights.
1774 –  Mr. Earnshaw sends Hindley away to college.
1777 –  Mr. Earnshaw dies; Hindley and Frances take possession of Wuthering Heights; Catherine first visits Thrushcross Grange around Christmastime.
1778 –  Hareton is born in June; Frances dies; Hindley begins his slide into alcoholism.
1780 –  Catherine becomes engaged to Edgar Linton; Heathcliff leaves Wuthering Heights.
1783 –  Catherine and Edgar are married; Heathcliff arrives at Thrushcross Grange in September.
1784 –  Heathcliff and Isabella elope in the early part of the year; Catherine becomes ill with brain fever; young Catherine is born late in the year; Catherine dies.
1785 –  Early in the year, Isabella flees Wuthering Heights and settles in London; Linton is born.
~1785 –  Hindley dies; Heathcliff inherits Wuthering Heights.
~1797 –  Young Catherine meets Hareton and visits Wuthering Heights for the first time; Linton comes from London after Isabella dies (in late 1797 or early 1798).
1800 –  Young Catherine stages her romance with Linton in the winter.
1801 –  Early in the year, young Catherine is imprisoned by Heathcliff and forced to marry Linton; Edgar Linton dies; Linton dies; Heathcliff assumes control of Thrushcross Grange. Late in the year, Lockwood rents the Grange from Heathcliff and begins his tenancy. In a winter storm, Lockwood takes ill and begins conversing with Nelly Dean.
1801–1802 –  During the winter, Nelly narrates her story for Lockwood.
1802 –  In spring, Lockwood returns to London; Catherine and Hareton fall in love; Heathcliff dies; Lockwood returns in September and hears the end of the story from Nelly.
1803 –  On New Year’s Day, young Catherine and Hareton plan to be married.

Plot Overview: Jane Eyre Novel

Jane Eyre is a young orphan being raised by Mrs. Reed, her cruel, wealthy aunt. A servant named Bessie provides Jane with some of the few kindnesses she receives, telling her stories and singing songs to her. One day, as punishment for fighting with her bullying cousin John Reed, Jane’s aunt imprisons Jane in the red-room, the room in which Jane’s Uncle Reed died. While locked in, Jane, believing that she sees her uncle’s ghost, screams and faints. She wakes to find herself in the care of Bessie and the kindly apothecary Mr. Lloyd, who suggests to Mrs. Reed that Jane be sent away to school. To Jane’s delight, Mrs. Reed concurs.

Once at the Lowood School, Jane finds that her life is far from idyllic. The school’s headmaster is Mr. Brocklehurst, a cruel, hypocritical, and abusive man. Brocklehurst preaches a doctrine of poverty and privation to his students while using the school’s funds to provide a wealthy and opulent lifestyle for his own family. At Lowood, Jane befriends a young girl named Helen Burns, whose strong, martyrlike attitude toward the school’s miseries is both helpful and displeasing to Jane. A massive typhus epidemic sweeps Lowood, and Helen dies of consumption. The epidemic also results in the departure of Mr. Brocklehurst by attracting attention to the insalubrious conditions at Lowood. After a group of more sympathetic gentlemen takes Brocklehurst’s place, Jane’s life improves dramatically. She spends eight more years at Lowood, six as a student and two as a teacher.

After teaching for two years, Jane yearns for new experiences. She accepts a governess position at a manor called Thornfield, where she teaches a lively French girl named Adèle. The distinguished housekeeper Mrs. Fairfax presides over the estate. Jane’s employer at Thornfield is a dark, impassioned man named Rochester, with whom Jane finds herself falling secretly in love. She saves Rochester from a fire one night, which he claims was started by a drunken servant named Grace Poole. But because Grace Poole continues to work at Thornfield, Jane concludes that she has not been told the entire story. Jane sinks into despondency when Rochester brings home a beautiful but vicious woman named Blanche Ingram. Jane expects Rochester to propose to Blanche. But Rochester instead proposes to Jane, who accepts almost disbelievingly.

The wedding day arrives, and as Jane and Mr. Rochester prepare to exchange their vows, the voice of Mr. Mason cries out that Rochester already has a wife. Mason introduces himself as the brother of that wife—a woman named Bertha. Mr. Mason testifies that Bertha, whom Rochester married when he was a young man in Jamaica, is still alive. Rochester does not deny Mason’s claims, but he explains that Bertha has gone mad. He takes the wedding party back to Thornfield, where they witness the insane Bertha Mason scurrying around on all fours and growling like an animal. Rochester keeps Bertha hidden on the third story of Thornfield and pays Grace Poole to keep his wife under control. Bertha was the real cause of the mysterious fire earlier in the story. Knowing that it is impossible for her to be with Rochester, Jane flees Thornfield.

Penniless and hungry, Jane is forced to sleep outdoors and beg for food. At last, three siblings who live in a manor alternatively called Marsh End and Moor House take her in. Their names are Mary, Diana, and St. John (pronounced “Sinjin”) Rivers, and Jane quickly becomes friends with them. St. John is a clergyman, and he finds Jane a job teaching at a charity school in Morton. He surprises her one day by declaring that her uncle, John Eyre, has died and left her a large fortune: 20,000 pounds. When Jane asks how he received this news, he shocks her further by declaring that her uncle was also his uncle: Jane and the Riverses are cousins. Jane immediately decides to share her inheritance equally with her three newfound relatives.

St. John decides to travel to India as a missionary, and he urges Jane to accompany him—as his wife. Jane agrees to go to India but refuses to marry her cousin because she does not love him. St. John pressures her to reconsider, and she nearly gives in. However, she realizes that she cannot abandon forever the man she truly loves when one night she hears Rochester’s voice calling her name over the moors. Jane immediately hurries back to Thornfield and finds that it has been burned to the ground by Bertha Mason, who lost her life in the fire. Rochester saved the servants but lost his eyesight and one of his hands. Jane travels on to Rochester’s new residence, Ferndean, where he lives with two servants named John and Mary.

At Ferndean, Rochester and Jane rebuild their relationship and soon marry. At the end of her story, Jane writes that she has been married for ten blissful years and that she and Rochester enjoy perfect equality in their life together. She says that after two years of blindness, Rochester regained sight in one eye and was able to behold their first son at his birth.