SOFTSKILL TUGAS 1

ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE

  1. PASSIVE VOICE

Active voice is used for most non-scientific writing. Using active voice for the majority of your sentences makes your meaning clear for readers, and keeps the sentences from becoming too complicated or wordy. Even in scientific writing, too much use of passive voice can cloud the meaning of your sentences. The passive voice is also useful when describing, say, a mechanical process in which the details of process are much more important than anyone’s taking responsibility for the action.

The passive voice does exist for a reason, however, and its presence is not always to be despised. The passive is particularly useful (even recommended) in two situations:

  • When it is more important to draw our attention to the person or thing acted upon
  • When the actor in the situation is not important

Passive Verb Formation

The passive forms of a verb are created by combining a form of the “to be verb” with the past participle of the main verb. Other helping verbs are also sometimes present: “The measure could have been killed in committee.” The passive can be used, also, in various tenses. Let’s take a look at the passive forms of “design.”

PresentTense Subject Auxiliary Past 
Participle
Singular Plural
Present The car/cars is are designed.
Present perfect The car/cars has been have been designed.
Past The car/cars was were designed.
Past perfect The car/cars had been had been designed.
Future The car/cars will be will be designed.
Future perfect The car/cars will have been will have been designed.
Present progressive The car/cars is being are being designed.
Past progressive The car/cars was being were being designed.

Recognizing Passive Voice

You can recognize passive-voice expressions because the verb phrase will always include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been. The presence of a be-verb, however, does not necessarily mean that the sentence is in passive voice. Another way to recognize passive-voice sentences is that they may include a “by the…” phrase after the verb; the agent performing the action, if named, is the object of the preposition in this phrase.

                 2. ACTIVE VOICE

Using the ‘active voice’ in grammar means the subject of your sentence performs the action of the verb. In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

example:


Passive voice for Present/Future Modals

“CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO”

  • The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
  • 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
  • To change sentences having present/future modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb “be” is added after modal in sentence.
Passive voice for Present/Future Modals
“CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO”
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: be
Active voice: CAN
She can play a violin.
She cannot play a violin.
Can she play a violin?
Passive voice: CAN BE
A violin can be played by her.
A violin cannot be played by her.
Can a violin be played by her?
Active voice: MAY
I may buy the computer.
I may not buy the computer.
May I buy the computer?
Active voice: MAY BE
The computer may be bought by me.
The computer may not be bought by me.
May the computer be bought by me?
Active voice: MIGHT
Guests might play chess.
Guests might not play chess.
Active voice: MIGHT BE
Chess might be played by guests.
Chess might not be played guests.
Active voice: SHOULD
Students should study all lessons.
Students should not study all lessons.
Should students study all lessons?
Active voice: SHOULD BE
All lessons should be studied by students.
All lessons should not be studied by students.
Should all lessons be studied by students?
Active voice: MUST
You must learn the test-taking strategies.
You must not learn the test-taking strategies.
Active voice: MUST BE
Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you.
Test-taking strategies must not be learned by you.
Active voice: OUGHT TO
They ought to take the examination.
Active voice: OUGHT TO BE
The examination ought to be taken by them.

Passive voice for Past Modals

“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE”

  • The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
  • 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
  • To change sentences having past modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb “been” is added after modal in sentence.
Passive voice for Present/Future Modals
“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT HAVE TO”
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: been
Active voice: MAY HAVE
You may have availed the opportunity.
You may not have availed the opportunity.
Active voice: MAY HAVE BEEN
The opportunity may have been availed by you.
The opportunity may not have been availed by you.
Active voice: MIGHT HAVE
He might have eaten meal.
He might not have eaten meal.
Active voice: MIGHT HAVE BEEN
Meal might have been eaten by him.
Meal might not have been eaten by him.
Active voice: SHOULD HAVE
You should have studied the book.
You should not have studied the book.
Active voice: SHOULD HAVE BEEN
The book should have been studied by you.
The book should have not been studied by you.
Active voice: MUST HAVE
He must have started job.
He must not have started job.
Active voice: MUST HAVE BEEN
Job must have been started by you.
Job must not have been started by you.
Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE
You ought to have helped him.
Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN
He ought to have been helped by you


TENSES

  1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

The simple present tense is used:

  • To express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes: I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city (general truth)
  • To give instructions or directions: You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left.
  • To express fixed arrangements, present or future: Your exam starts at 09.00
  • To express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until: He’ll give it to you when you come next Saturday.

Structure of sentence – Rules

  • Positive Sentence

Subject + Main verb + Object
Subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + Object

Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun” then “s” or “es” is added to the first form of verb or base form in the sentence.

Examples.
I write a letter.
He gets up early in the morning.
Sun rises in east.

  • Negative Sentences

Subject + auxiliary verb +NOT + Main verb +object
Subject + Do not/Does not + 1st form of verb (or base form) + object

Examples.
I do not write a letter.
He does not get up early in the morning.
Sun does not rise in east.

Note: In negative sentence auxiliary verb “do or does” along with “not” is used. If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun”, then “Does not” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “I, we, they, you or plural” then “Do not” is used after subject in sentence. “s” or “es” is not added to main verb in negative sentence

  • Interrogative Sentence

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object
Do/Does + Subject + 1st for of verb (or base verb) + Object

Examples.
Do I write a letter?
Does he get up early in the morning?
Does sun rise in east?

Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun” the sentence is started with Auxiliary verb “Does”. If the subject in a sentence is “I, we, they, you or plural” the sentence is started with auxiliary verb “Do”. “s” or “es” is not added to main verb in Interrogative sentence.

2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE

It is used to express an action that happened or completed in past, usually a very little time before speaking, or action which is just completed. Time of action is not specified in terms of long time ago or short ago but it make a sense that the action has done a little time ago. For example, a person says, “I watched a movie”, it means the speaker of this sentence watched a movie a little time ago or little time ago in the same day.

Rules:2nd form of verb (past simple) is used as main verb in the positive sentences and base form is used in negative and interrogative sentences.

  • Positive Sentence

Subject + main verb (past simple) + object
Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object

Examples

I killed a snake
He ate a mango.

  • Negative sentences

Subject + (auxiliary verb + not) main verb (base form) + object
Subject + did not + 1st form of verb or base form + object

In negative sentence “did not” is written and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is used instead of using 2nd form (or past simple verb).

Examples
.
I did not kill a snake
He did not eat a mango

  • Interrogative sentences

Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (base verb) + object

Did + subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + object

Interrogative sentence starts with “did” and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is used instead of using 2nd form (or past simple verb).

Examples

Did I kill a snake?
Did he eat a mango?

3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It expresses an action which is in progress at the time of speaking. For example, a person says, “I am writing a letter”. It means that he is in the process of writing a letter right now. Such actions which are happening at time of speaking are expressed by present continuous tense. Present Continuous tense is also called Present progressive tense.

Rules. Auxiliary verb “am or is or are” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence

  • Positive Sentence

Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object

If the subject is “I” then auxiliary verb “am” is used after subject in sentence.
If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “is” is used after subject in sentence.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “are” is used after subject in sentence.
The participle “ing” is added to the 1st form of verb i.e. going (go) writing (write)

Examples

I am playing cricket.
He is driving a car
They are reading their lessons.

  • Negative Sentence

Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
Subject + am/is/are + not + (1st form of verb + ing) + object

Rules for using auxiliary verbs (am or is or are) after subject in negative sentences are same as mentioned above.

Examples
.
I am not playing cricket.
He is not driving a car
They are not reading their lessons.

  • Interrogative Sentences

Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object

Am/is/are + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object

For making interrogative sentences, the sentence is started with auxiliary verb rather than putting auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If the subject is “I” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “am”. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “is”. If subject is “You, They or plural” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “are”.

Examples.
Am I playing cricket?
Is he driving a car?
Are they reading their lessons?

4. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing action which occurred in past and completed at some point in past. It expresses an ongoing nature of an action in past.  For example, “he was laughing.” This sentence shows ongoing action (laughing) of a person which occurred in past. Past continuous tense is also called past progressive.

Rules: Auxiliary verb “was or were” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence

  • Positive sentences

Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present participle) + object
Subject + was/were + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object

If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then auxiliary verb “was” is used. If subject is “you, we, they or plural” then auxiliary verb “were” is used.
Examples.
She was crying yesterday.
They were climbing on a hill.

  • Negative sentences

Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + Main verb (present participle) + object
Subject + was/were + NOT + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object

Rules for using auxiliary verb after subject are same as mentioned above.

Examples.
She was not crying yesterday.
They were not climbing on a hill.

  • Interrogative sentences

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb (present participle) + object
Was/were + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object

The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb. If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “was”. If subject is “you, we, they or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “were”.
Examples.
Was she crying yesterday?
Were they climbing on a hill?

5. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

It is used to expressed an action which happened or completed in past but usually the action which happened or completed at a short time before now (near past) not a very long time before now. Specific time such as two years ago, last week or that day is usually not used in the sentences of in this tense. It means that this tense expresses the action whose time when it happened, is not exactly specified but it sounds to refer to some action that happened or completed in near past.

Rules: Auxiliary verb “has or have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of Sentence

  • Positive Sentence

Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + Subject
Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has” is used after subject in sentence.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have” is used after subject in sentence.

Examples

I have eaten meal
She has learnt a lesson

  • Negative Sentence

Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + Subject
Subject + has/have + NOT + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

Rules for using auxiliary verb “has or have” in negative sentence are same as mentioned above.

Examples

I have not eaten meal.
She has not learnt a lesson.

  • Interrogative Sentences

Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb (past participle) + Subject
Has/have + Subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has”.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have”.

Examples

Have I eaten meal?
Has she learnt a lesson?

6. PAST PERFECT TENSE

It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time ago) and action which has occurred in past before another action in past.

For example,
I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and especially a long time ago)

The students had gone before the teacher came.  (The first part of sentence “The student has gone” is sentence of past perfect tense, it says about an action which occurred before another action in past which is “the teacher came”. The second part “the teacher came” is sentence of past simple tense. So such a sentence which express an action in past before another action in past comprises two parts where the first part of sentence is past perfect tense)

Rules. Auxiliary verb “had” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence

Structure of sentence.

  • Positive sentence

Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

Examples.
He had taken the exam last year
A thief had stolen my watch.

  • Negative sentence

Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + object
Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

“Not” is written after auxiliary verb in negative sentence.
Examples.
He had not taken the exam last year
A thief had not stolen my watch.

  • Interrogative sentence

Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (past participle) + object
Had + subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had”
Examples.
Had he taken the exam last year
Had a thief stolen my watch?


TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

A. Transitive Verb

A transitive verb is one that is used with an object: a noun, phrase, or pronoun that refers to the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb. In the following sentences, admire, maintain,face, and love are transitive verbs:

I admire your courage.

We need to maintain product quality.

I couldn’t face him today.

She loves animals.

Some transitive verbs can be used with a direct object and an indirect object:

Lizzy brought her a glass of water.
[indirect object] [direct object]
He sent her a letter.
[indirect object] [direct object]

Here is a short list of some common verbs that can take a direct and indirect object:

Verb Example
give Pat gave me a book for my birthday.
buy Can I buy you a drink?
pass Paul passed her a cup of coffee.
make Shall I make us some lunch?
sell Jenny was trying to sell me her car.
take We took Maria some flowers and wine.
show Show me your holiday photos.
offer The company has offered me a job.
leave Leave me a message and I’ll get back to you.
wish Everyone wished us all the best for the future.
lend Could you lend me £20?
cost Ben’s mistake cost him his job.

B. Intransitive Verb

An intransitive verb does not have an object. In the following sentences, cry, work, laugh, and talk are intransitive verbs:

The baby was crying.

I work for a large firm in Paris.

They laughed uncontrollably.

We talked for hours.

Transitive and intransitive verbs

Many verbs can be transitive or intransitive. For example:

The choir sang carols. [transitive]

Pete always sings in the bath. [intransitive]

She left London on June 6. [transitive]

I want to leave early. [intransitive]

Here is a short list of some common verbs that can be transitive or intransitive:

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SOURCE:

http://www.studyandexam.com/present-simple-tense.html

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/passive.htm

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/539/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/simple-past-tense/

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/past-tense/past-simple

http://www.k12reader.com/term/transitive-and-intransitive-verbs/

http://www.studyandexam.com/present-continuous-tense.html

https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_present-continuous_s.htm

http://nurmalazahra.blogspot.co.id/2011/02/present-continuous-tense.html

http://www.talkenglish.com/grammar/active-passive-voice.aspx

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/activepassive.html

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/words/transitive-and-intransitive-verbs

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